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Abstract Detail

Systematics Section/ASPT

Manchester, Steven [1], Collinson, Margaret [2], Herrera, Fabiany [3], Soriano Hoyuelo, Carmen [4], Andrew, Mary J. [5].

Fruit morphology and anatomy of modern and fossil Torricelliaceae (Apiales).

Fruits of Torricellia DC and Melanophylla Baker are distinctive in their morphology and anatomy, allowing for recognition of fossils which demonstrate that the family Torricelliaceae was established by the late Paleocene. Application of x-ray tomography to fossil and extant fruits has augmented traditional approaches of physical sectioning and light microscopy to facilitate a more thorough comparison among modern and fossil occurrences. These genera both have trilocular fruits in which one locule is fertile and the other two are fully enlarged, but sterile. The septa and endocarp wall are composed of uniform isodiametric sclereids. Torricellia (original spelling Toricellia) is distinctive by the presence of a longitudinally curved embryo chamber and a symmetrically placed pair of circular holes, one in the dorsal endocarp wall of each sterile locule. Detailed comparative anatomical investigations of extant Aralidium Miq. fruits have not yet been carried out, and the extent to which fruit morphology supports its inclusion in the same family remains to be determined. Although Torricelliaceae are restricted in their modern distribution to Madagascar (Melanophylla), Malesia (Aralidium) and eastern Asia (Torricellia), the latter genus was more widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere during the early Cenozoic. Fossil fruits of Torricellia are known from the late Paleocene of North Dakota, USA and from middle Eocene of Oregon and Washington, and from the middle Eocene and middle Miocene of Germany based on morphological and anatomical investigations with light and scanning electron microscopy. Application of synchrotron tomographic microscopy and micro-CT tomography to fossil and extant fruits has revealed the presence of Torricellia in the Early Eocene (Ypresian) of the London Clay Formation, UK. The pyritized specimens, originally described as Spondiaecarpon operculatum Chandler, represent locule casts of Toricellia rather than fruits of Anacardiaceae. The London Clay fossils are similar to silicified specimens of Torricellia bonesii (Manch.) Manch. from the Clarno Formation of Oregon. Recognition of Torricellia in the London Clay flora fills a previously unexplained palaeogeographic gap and demonstrates that Torricellia is yet another example of many angiosperm genera shared between the Clarno Formation, USA, the London Clay Formation, UK, and the Messel Formation, Germany during the warm climates of the early Paleogene (c. 55-48 Ma).

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1 - University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO Box 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA
2 - Royal Holloway University Of London, Geology Dept-Royal Holloway, Egham Hill, Royal Holloway University Of London, Egham, N/A, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom
3 - Chicago Botanic Garden, Plant Science Center, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Uiversity Of Florida, Glencoe, Il, 60022, USA
4 - Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B002 , Argonne, IL, 60439, USA
5 - Royal Holloway University of London, Department of Earth Sciences, Egham, , Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK


Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Session: 60
Location: Salon 2/The Shaw Conference Centre
Date: Wednesday, July 29th, 2015
Time: 11:30 AM
Number: 60014
Abstract ID:1277
Candidate for Awards:None

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