Herron, Sterling , Wen, Jun , Zimmer, Elizabeth .
Nuclear and Chloroplast Sequences Resolve the Concord Grape Mystery.
The Concord grape is both culturally and commercially important in the United States as a source of juice, jelly, jam, and wine, as well as a popular cultivated plant. However, the genetic heritage of the Concord grape has been shrouded in mystery since its development by Ephraim Bull in 1849. An avid horticulturalist, Bull experimented with some 22,000 grape plants in order to develop the perfect, cold-hardy crop with bisexual flowers. While some sources report that the Concord grape was derived from selection from wild Vitis labrusca in Concord, Massachusetts, others argue that it is a hybrid of two or more grape species. In order to achieve the most complete analysis, grape specimens were collected from across the entire mid-Atlantic region (where Bull would have had access). Outgroup species from other regions were also included. DNA was extracted from 59 different samples of the Vitis genus using Autogen and the CTAB buffer at the Smithsonian Museum Support Center. Six chloroplast (matK, psba-trnH, petN-trnC, ycf1, trnLF, and trnS-G) and four nuclear (AT103, sqd1, phyA, and GAI1) markers were used to determine the maternal and paternal parents of the Concord grape. Samples were processed through PCR amplification, gel electrophoresis, ExoSap purification, and Sanger sequencing in the Laboratories of Analytical Biology at the National Museum of Natural History. Using Geneious 7.1.5 (Drummond et al. 2014), all sequences were checked for inaccuracies and aligned. jModeltest 2.1.4 (Darriba et al. 2012) was used to find the best-fit model for phylogenetic analysis. MrBayes 3.2.2 (Ronquist et al. 2012) and SplitsTree 4.13 (Huson & Bryant 2006) were used to generate the phylogenetic trees. The plastid and nuclear data were analyzed as separate matrices. The chloroplast data show that the European V. vinifera and the Concord grape form a clade and share nearly identical sequences, indicating that V. vinifera was in fact the original maternal species from which Concord was derived. The strong similarity between Concord and V. labrusca in nuclear sequences establishes V. labrusca as the paternal parent of the Concord grape. The distinct correlation between V. labrusca and Concord grape nuclear gene sequences, as well as morphological similarities, indicate that the Concord hybrid was backcrossed with V. labrusca in its development by Bull. These results encourage further research on other popular Vitis cultivars with unclear genetic histories.
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2 - Smithsonian Institution, Botany, MRC-166 National Museum Of Natural History, 10th St. & Constitution Ave., NW, MRC 166, Washington/DC, N/A, 20013-7012, USA
3 - Smithsonian National Museum Of Natural History, Museum Support Center, P.O. Box 37102, Washington, DC, 20013-7102, USA
Presentation Type: Poster:Posters for Sections
Location: Hall D/The Shaw Conference Centre
Date: Monday, July 27th, 2015
Time: 5:30 PM
Candidate for Awards:None